Electrical – How does this line filter work

acfilterpower supply

I am trying to figure out the role of each of the lettered components in this line filter circuit. The line filter is connected to a rectifier, which is connected to a high frequency power inverter, which is connected to a step down transformer.

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Not sure if the above will display so here is the link https://ibb.co/ci0CmJ

What I think so far (which may be wrong!):
K1 is the common mode line choke which filters out common mode signals and lets differential signals pass.

C1 helps remove some of the high frequency noise coming from the mains and ensures any is not transmitted back into the mains.

C3 and C4 ground high frequency signals, but I am not sure how. They look like they are voltage dividers there.

I am not sure about C2 and R1.

Why do capacitors in parallel act as low pass filters, and is this what C2 and R1 are doing, and if so, how?

Also, from what I have read, for capacitors to act as voltage reservoirs to produce a steady voltage from an ac source, they have to be bigger than what is used in this circuit – is that correct?

Best Answer

You basically have the details right. C1 and C2 are X or X2 rated capacitors allowing them to be across the AC mains. K1 is the common mode inductor mostly to block EMI noise which is mostly common mode from leaving the switching power supply and getting out into your house wiring

R1 is the required 'bleed' resistor to make sure when the AC is OFF or unplugged the capacitors have a discharge path.

C3 and C4 are Y rated and meant to be a balanced HF noise filter and a active ground reference for HF noise. 35.5 nF is substantial noise filtering, especially above 30 KHZ where most SMPS supplies operate.

An X or Y rated capacitor cannot fail by shorting out, even with a nail driven through them. They must be UL certified to be X or Y rated.

Note that a 10 mH common mode choke is a large value, blocking HF noise from either direction. Combined with the capacitors this is heavy duty filtering.