For (a,b,c) that's more or less correct. In general, there doesn't have to be a voltage/current just because there is a short/open, there just can't be any voltage in a perfect short and there can't be any current in a perfect open.

Another way to re-word these two terms is that a short circuit has 0 resistance (R=0), and an open circuit has infinite resistance (R=infinity).

So in Ohm's law, \$V = IR\$.

If \$R = 0\$, then \$V = 0\$.

If \$R = \infty\$, then using some mathematical trickery:

$$
I = \lim_{R\rightarrow \infty} \frac{V}{R} = 0
$$

As far as the force analogy goes, if it's useful think about you pushing on a building. Just because you are applying a force doesn't mean the building is going anywhere. These type of analogies tend to break down when dealing with theoretical 0's and infinities, so I wouldn't rely too heavily on them but rather look at the mathematics.

Start by analyzing the steady state. That means all capacitors are open circuits. The first opamp then just inverts Vinput with respect to ground. The second then inverts it again, but with a gain of 1/2. Therefore Voutput = Vinput / 2.

Since both opamps are ideal and have feedback so that they operate in their linear region, the negative inputs of both will be held at 0 V.

Analyzing the dynamic behavior is more tricky, but you already know what the steady state will be after everything settles. C2 feeds current proportional to the derivative of Vinput into the node at the negative input of the second amp. This will add to the steady state signal. Voutput will therefore have a component that is proportional to -dVinput/dt.

C1 and R2 form a high pass filter, which in the feedback path results in a the second stage being a low pass filter. Whatever the Voutput would have otherwise been, it will be low pass filtered by a single pole at 1/2πR_{2}C_{1}. When R is in Ohms and C in Farads, then this expression is in Hz.

## Best Answer

The is no standard expression "short circuit voltage"in electrical engineering. However there are other related expressions like;

Short circuit

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short_circuit

Short circuit current

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prospective_short_circuit_current

Breakdown voltage

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breakdown_voltage

Electrical breakdown

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_breakdown

In my ears "short circuit voltage" could imply the voltage at which one or more components in a circuit breaks down resulting in a potential short circuit. However there is no such term that is widely used.