Electronic – Why is there a diode connected in parallel to a relay coil

relay

In most electrical circuits with a relay, a diode is connected in parallel to the coil of the relay. Why? Is it always a good practice?

Best Answer

Since an inductor (the relay coil) cannot change it's current instantly, the flyback diode provides a path for the current when the coil is switched off. Otherwise, a voltage spike will occur causing arcing on switch contacts or possibly destroying switching transistors.

Is it always a good practice?

Usually, but not always. If the relay coil is driven by AC, a bi-directional TVS-diode (or some other voltage clamp) and/or a snubber (series RC) need to be used. A diode would not work in this case as it would act as a short-circuit during the negative half-cycle of the AC. (See also Red Lion SNUB0000 for application info)

For DC driven relays, a diode is usually used, but not always. As Andy aka pointed out, sometimes a higher voltage than what is allowed by a diode alone is desired for faster turn-off of the relay (or other such as solenoids, flyback transformers, etc.). In this case, a uni-directional TVS-diode is sometimes added in series with the flyback diode, connected anode to anode (or cathode to cathode). A series resistor could be used in place of the TVS-diode, but the clamping voltage is more deterministic if the TVS-diode is used.

If a MOSFET is used as the switching element, normally you still need the flyback diode as the body diode is in the opposite direction to do any good. An exception to this is a MOSFET that is "Repetitive Avalanche Rated" (such as IRFD220). This is normally drawn with a zener diode symbol for the body diode. These MOSFETs are designed to clamp the voltage at a level they can withstand, allowing the higher voltage for quicker coil turn-off. Sometimes an external uni-directional TVS-diode (or zener) is placed in parallel with the MOSFET for the same purpose, or if the MOSFET cannot handle the "Repetitive Avalanche Current" or "Repetitive Avalanche Energy", or if the avalanche breakdown voltage is higher than desired.