Some of the things you say are conflicting, so I want to be clear about the question I am answering. If this is not the question you intended, then you need to write a better question.

The question is what is the voltage accross C1 over time when it initially starts at 0. You didn't specify a capacitance, so we'll leave that as the variable C.

There are two separate regimes to the C1 voltage over time. The first is when the supply is in current limit mode. In that case, the capacitor is being charged up linearly. When the capacitor reaches 9 V, the supply switches over to constant voltage operation. After that, there is a exponential decay from 9 V to 10 V governed by the RC time constant.

The voltage rise of a capacitor is dV = I dT / C. We know the current (I) is 1 Amp and that dV will be 9 V in the first part of the function. The time to reach 9 V is dT = dV C / I. For example, if C = 470 µF, then the time to charge from 0 to 9 V is 4.2 ms. The capacitor voltage will rise linearly during that time.

From 9V on, the supply will be at a constant voltage of 10 V. This remaining 1 V rise will occur as a exponential according to the time constant RC. Again using 470 µF as example for C, that time constant would be 470 µs. That means, for example, that 470 µs after the capacitor has reached 9 V, it will have gained another 630 mV, which would put it at 9.63 V in absolute terms.

## Added to clarify why the crossover point is 9 V:

Work backwards and assume the supply is always putting out 10 V. At what capacitor voltage does that require 1 A or more? Since R1 is 1 Ω, 1 A thru it causes a 1 V drop. If the supply is 10 V and R1 drops 1 V, then there must be 9 V on the capacitor when the current is 1 A. If the capacitor voltage is lower, then the voltage on R1 must be higher, which means the supply has to source more than 1 A. However, we know the supply puts out the lesser of 10 V or 1 A, so delivering more than 1 A is not possible. This means for capacitor voltages below 9 V, the supply voltage will be the capacitor voltage plus 1 V, since 1 V will be accross R1 when the supply is putting out 1 A.

It's like the "paradox" of the immovable object meeting the irresistible force. In reality, neither can exist.

A real power source will have some impedance. A real capacitor will have some impedance. Real wires connecting them have resistance and inductance.

So in reality when you slap a fairly 'stiff' power source across a fairly good real capacitor there's a spark and the capacitor charges through those series resistances with some ringing and stuff due to the inductances. Ignoring the inductances, the voltage difference would simply divide in ratio to the internal resistance of the capacitor and the internal resistance of the power supply and the wire resistance.

To answer your specific question:
If the capacitor and voltage source and wires are ideal, you have a mathematical problem, like division by zero. It's of no consequence in the real world- it just illustrates that the ideal models of the power source and the capacitor and wires are insufficiently accurate to describe their real-world behavior. Modelling **any one** of those as a real part with real resistance (and inductance) will make the mathematical problem go away, but it won't likely give you an accurate indication of what is actually happening.

For example, if the wire (or the capacitor or the power supply) had 10m\$\Omega\$ resistance, and there is a 10V difference, you could predict you'd see 1000A (which is very high, but not infinity) and the capacitor would charge very quickly. In reality that isn't likely going to happen because of other non-ideal factors. If the 10m\$\Omega\$ was modeled as in the power supply, the power supply voltage would drop. If the 10m\$\Omega\$ was modeled as in the capacitor, the voltage would suddenly appear across the capacitor terminals. If the 10m\$\Omega\$ was modeled as in the wire, the voltage would appear across the wire. But none of those is very realistic.

If you modeled as a circuit with no resistance at all and a tiny bit of inductance (even superconducting wires of any length have inductance) then a simple mathematical model would predict ringing that would persist forever, energy sloshing back and forth between the inductance and capacitance at an angular frequency of \$\omega_0 = {1 \over \sqrt{LC}}\$.

## Best Answer

The cap will try to charge to the supply voltage. On its way to that voltage, if the voltage exceeds the voltage rating of the capacitor, the capacitor will eventually fail. At that point it will be permanently damaged. It may have even externally ruptured.