In a battery, there is a 'C' rating, which appears to be a function of its capacity. a 5 Ah battery charged or discharged at 1C charges or discharges at 5A.
However C capability is generally spoken of with respect to battery chemistry only.
If I have four cells, each 3 V, 0.8 Ah, then I can make a battery with three different topologies:
- 1S 4P: 3 V
- 2S 2P: 6 V
- 4S 1P: 12 V
Each variant has a 3.2 Ah capacity*, and 1C in each case suggests charging or discharging at 3.2 A. However in 1), each cell will experience 0.8 A of charge or discharge. In 2) each cell will see 1.6 A, and 3) each cell will see the full 3.2 A. Battery 3 at 3.2 A will charge 4x faster than battery 1, corresponding to four times the power input, totally changing how the chemistry might be expected to behave. C rating sure surely then include the topology, or else it would be a nonsensical metric. What is the reality?
*Incorrect. Amp hour rating varies as inverse of voltage from topology. Amp hour rating alone is insufficient to characterise energy capacity, voltage is required also leading to a common Watt hour capacity. Series topology is cancelled and the Amp hour rating of the battery is equal to the Amp hour rating of the smallest parallel arrangement of cells in the battery.