I don't have a lot of experience with mains voltage and designing protection circuits for them. I'm not sure:
A) What do I need to protect against? I know I don't need to worry about 10kV voltage transients on the mains line, but what about 300V spikes? Mains voltage is 120Vrms nominal (in the US, for residential users), but what is the maximum that should be expected and planned for.
B) How do I protect against it? For voltage transients I can use a TVS diode, or a MOV, but I don't know how to select one. When do I use one over the other? For overvoltage protection, is there an AC version of a crowbar?
What are good guidelines about what to protect against, and how to do it for mains circuits?
To try and head off the inevitable "close for too vague" votes, I want to mention that I'm only interested in:
- "what are the common voltage issues that residential mains wiring will present to a circuit on it" and
- "what are the basics of protecting against these issues"
I realize that there are probably many books written about circuit protection circuits, but I think that a very basic answer would be very appropriate here.