A few specs are important: input voltage, output voltage, output current, whether the input is single-phase or three-phase, acceptable output voltage ripple, and output voltage tolerance.
For typical single-phase full-wave rectification, you'll need four diodes and a capacitor. Three-phase would require an additional two diodes.
The DC voltage output will be roughly the peak of the AC line. You'll need a transformer to step it up or down from your source. Even if you just want to rectify the AC line, a transformer is probably a good idea, just to help limit the available energy on the output side in case something goes wrong. The transformer needs to be spec'd to supply at least as much power as you'll be pulling with your load.
Make sure the diodes can handle all the current you want to pull, and the voltage of the DC bus. You can use individual diodes, or a package containing multiple diodes already arranged as a rectifier.
The capacitor should be selected to handle the DC bus voltage. The capacitance and the load current set the ripple voltage. For a 60 Hz line, the cap will be charged once every 8.3 mS. How far the cap drops in between line peaks is determined by the equation. I = C dv/dt, or rearranged, dv = dt I/C. How much ripple is acceptable depends on your application.
Even with relatively low ripple, you'll need a regulator downstream of the capacitor if you want any sort of precise voltage, as the AC line will fluctuate over time.
Also, appropriate use of fuses is important. Put a fuse with a rating somewhat higher than your expected load current in the DC output link. Having a switch in that link may also be nice, just for ease of use, depending on your application.
Kortuk stated it correctly, 120cps for Full Wave, 60cps for Half Wave.
As a side note, but seldom taught in books or schools.
Unless you need High Voltages, like a Tesla coil.
Avoid designing a resonance filter, or harmonics thereof, as very high voltages can develop.
The voltage developed is from circuit 'Q', at resonance, not just turn ratios.
A good question - fortunately also the answer is nicer than some - the rectifier cited can easily handle frequencies from DC to well above 60 Hz.
Rectifiers intended for mains use usually do not have specifications provided relating to frequency capability as they will easily deal with any "normal" non switch mode applications. The highest they are liable to usually be used for are 400 Hz "aircraft" supplies. They are liable to work about as well at 10 kHz. Above that you may want to start checking.
Relevant parameters may include capacitance, reverse recovery time, stored charge ... and probably a few more.
"Fast Recovery" diodes usually have recovery times less than 1 μs. Recovery time is ~= the time for forward current to fall to zero after applied voltage changes from positive to negative.
The diode below relates to an FET internal body diode but is a nicer illustration than some others available. From here