So when a capacitor is being charged, it is connected to a voltage source and a current flows through it (for a time).
Now, high-school physics says that when a capacitor made of 2 large parallel plates charges, one plate collects an excess of electrons, which makes it more negative. But… the electrons (in this model) are also circulating in the circuit, so they also "pass" through the capacitor, until "something happens" and they cannot pass anymore (i.e. a charged capacitor blocks DC). What is this thing which happens?
As far as I understand it, the high-school model is actually too simplistic, but where does it break down? I have a vague idea that the electrons are too slow to carry current (especially if it changes with high frequency such as in RF circuits) and electrical current is actually an EM field which is propagating, similar to how light (and the entirety of the RF spectrum) behaves, only localised to the wire (a conductor, like glass is for light). So, how does that model explain capacitors?
Can anyone point to a good explanation of the physics involved here?