This only answers one part of your question, but I think it might be the main place where you are misunderstanding.

How can the Ohm Law be applied in this case?

"Ohm's Law" isn't a law for all circuits. It's a description of one particular type of component: the ideal linear resistor.

It doesn't matter how your power supplies are arranged in your circuit. Ohm's law has nothing to do with power supplies.

The general laws you want to consider that describe how currents and voltages relate in any circuit are Kirchoff's Current Law and Kirchoff's Voltage Laws. These laws, along with specific current-voltage relationships for each type of device (one of which is Ohm's Law), are the main tools for analyzing circuits.

Your estimate is off by several orders of magnitude. Wikipedia gives the resistivity of air as being around \$10^{16}\ \Omega \cdot m\$. I'd guess an actual resistance between two points would be at least on the order of teraohms. Assuming \$1\ T\Omega\$, that gives a current of 5 picoamps, which is far too small to measure easily. As pointed out in an answer to another EE.SE question, the material the battery is made of is probably a better conductor than air.

To actually figure out what's going on in extreme situations, you need a more detailed model of the materials involved. How many electrons and/or ions are available for conduction? An ideal dielectric (insulator) has no free electrons, but a real dielectric might. What's the strength of the electric field? If you have a 40 kilovolt voltage source, you can rip apart air molecules, creating lots of free electrons! A less extreme example would be a vacuum tube, which "conducts" through empty space \$(R = \infty)\$ using electrons liberated from a piece of metal.

Ohm's law is an approximation that works for many materials at low voltages, frequencies, and temperatures. But it is far from a complete description of electrodynamics and physical chemistry, and should not be treated as such.

To answer your question more directly, regardless of whether a tiny current flows through the air, there can definitely be a voltage between the terminals. Voltage is another way of describing the electric field. Wherever there is an electric field, there is a voltage difference, even in a vacuum with no matter at all! HyperPhysics shows what this looks like.

Specifically, the *gradient* of the voltage field gives you the magnitude and direction of the electric field:

$$\vec E = -\nabla V$$

I don't know whether a tiny current actually flows through the air, but hopefully now you have a better appreciation for the physics of the situation. :-)

## Best Answer

What you do with a current limited power supply is set to

maximumproperties. The power supply will regulate its output voltage in such a way that the lowest condition is met.I drew a graph for how a current limited power supply will act with varying resistance connected. Consider a 12V power supply limited to 1A.